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Schizophrenia is a different and totally another world of art, dance, play, speech and music unknown for mostly people. In matter of fact doesn’t culture or psychology as we other know it exist or matter. Schizophrenia is a complex and severe psychological disorder. It is a disease that makes it difficult for a person to tell the difference between real and unreal experiences, to think logically, to have normal emotional responses to others, and to behave normally in social situations. Experts are not exactly sure what causes schizophrenia. Some psychologists think that the brain may not be able to process information correctly. Some thinks that genetic factors appear to play a role, as people who have family members with schizophrenia may be more likely to get the disease themselves. Some researchers believe that events in a person's environment may trigger schizophrenia. For example, problems during intrauterine development (infection) and birth may increase the risk for developing schizophrenia later in life. Psychological and social factors play probably a significant role in its development.
The most truly cause in our clinical point of view, is a subjective existential choice to do a fundamental isolation and denial of what’s been called "the Symbolic order" or a symbolic world ("Voice of Commendatore"). This denial is based on an experienced failing relationship and communication, real or imagined and unconscious in a past. From which point the schizophrenic subject don’t counts him self to belong too an unsecured freighting scaring world of neurosis where “only” rules of culture, tradition, language, words and speaking manners govern people’s behaviours and speech. The psychotic subject lives expressively with no acting-out borders, psychology dead, an inevitable barren ultimate freedom and withdrawal from culture and society. Involuntary guilty, pity, and alone.
There are usually five recognised types of schizophrenia: catatonic, paranoid, disorganised, undifferentiated, and residual. Features of schizophrenia include its typical onset before the age of 45, continuous presence of symptoms for six months or more, and deterioration from a prior level of social and occupational functioning. People with schizophrenia can have a variety of symptoms. Usually the illness develops slowly over months or even years. At first the symptoms may not be noticed. For example, people may feel tense, may have trouble sleeping, or have trouble concentrating. They become isolated and withdrawn; they do not make or keep friends. As the illness progresses, psychotic symptoms develop. Delusions and false beliefs or thoughts with no basis in reality occur. Hallucinations in form of hearing, seeing, or feeling things that are not there begin. Disordered thinking meaning thoughts that "jump" between completely unrelated topics arise. The person may talk nonsense and catatonic behaviour (bizarre motor behaviour marked by a decrease in reactivity to the environment) might be present. Hyperactivity that is unrelated to stimulus and flat affects (appearance or mood that shows no emotion) are other symptoms.
The risk factors include a family traditional history of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is thought to affect about 1% of the population world-wide. Schizophrenia appears to occur in equal rates among men and women, but women have a later onset. For this reason, males tend to account for more than half of clients in services with high proportions of young adults. Although the onset of schizophrenia is typically in young adulthood, cases of the disorder with a late onset (over 45 years) are known. Childhood-onset schizophrenia begins after five years of age and, in most cases, after relatively normal development. Childhood schizophrenia is rare and can be difficult to differentiate from other pervasive developmental disorders of childhood, such as autism. No single characteristic is present in all types of schizophrenia:
Catatonic type: motor disturbances, stupor, negativism, rigidity, excitement, may be unable to take care of personal needs, decreased sensitivity to painful stimulus.
Paranoid type: delusional thoughts of a persecution or grandiose nature, anxiety, anger, violence, argumentative.
Disorganized type: incoherence (not understandable), regressive behaviour, flat affect, delusions, hallucinations, inappropriate laughter, mannerisms and social withdrawal.
Undifferentiated type: may have symptoms of more than one subtype of schizophrenia,
Residual type: the prominent symptoms of the illness have abated but some features, such as hallucinations and flat affect, may remain
During an acute episode of schizophrenia, hospitalisation is often required to prevent self-inflicted harm or harm to others, and to provide for the person’s basic needs such as food, rest, and hygiene. Antipsychotic or neuroleptic medications work by changing the balances of chemicals in the brain and are used to control the symptoms of the illness. These medications are effective but are also associated with uncomfortable and sometimes dangerous side effects and unfortunately, as a result, many people do not take the medications they need. Drug treatment is usually continuous, as relapse of symptoms is common when medication is discontinued.
Ego-supportive and problem-focused forms of psychotherapy are helpful for many individuals. Behavioural techniques such as "social skills training" can be used in a therapeutic setting, or in the client’s natural environment, to promote social and occupational functioning. Family interventions that combine support and education about schizophrenia ("psychoeducation") appear to help families cope and reduce relapse. Clients who lack family and social support may be helped by intensive case management programs that emphasise active outreach and linkage to a range of community support services.
There are many different potential outcomes of schizophrenia. Most people with schizophrenia find that their symptoms improve with medication, and some achieve substantial control of the symptoms over time. However, many others experience functional disability and are at risk for repeated acute episodes, particularly during the early stages of the illness. Supported housing, vocational rehabilitation, and other community support programs may be essential to their community tenure. People with the most severe forms of this disorder may remain too disabled to live independently, requiring group homes or other long-term, structured living environments. Non-compliance with medication will frequently lead to a relapse of symptoms. Physical illness occurs at high rates among people with schizophrenia due to psychiatric treatment itself (such as side effects from medication) and living conditions associated with chronic disability. These may go undetected because of poor access to medical care and because of difficulties communicating with health-care providers. Persons with schizophrenia have a high risk of developing a coexisting substance abuse problem, and use of alcohol and/or drugs increases the risk of relapse. Call us for an appointment if you believe you’re suffering schizophrenia or have attitudes and feelings described above.
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